Scientific and technological revolution in the late 18th century gave rise to the development of industries in many western countries. At the same time, a system of capitalist economy was born to escalate the exploitation of common people, particularly the industrial workers. As the capitalist abuse reached its peak, a counter culture of communist politico-economic system became widespread. Seeking to challenge the capitalist establishment by means of class struggle and violence, the communists only succeeded in unleashing a new wave of exploitation. The majority of the world population now found themselves polarized into two mutually exclusive camps. Peace and stability receded as a distant memory. It was only a matter of time before the world would fight the First and Second World Wars. These two wars were but the inevitable consequence of the advancement of science and technology.
When the Second World War ended, the major powers realigned themselves yet again into two opposing blocs, and set in motion a new phase of confrontation. The Cold War dragged on remorselessly for decades, with awesome consequences. Even today humanity bears the scars of that insidious strife.
Apparently, the power blocs and the Cold War are past history now. But violence is not. The world today is faced with yet another predicament, that of terrorist violence. The root of this problem can be found in the general system of economic exploitation, particularly in the expansion of globalization and consumerism.
All through this global historical development, Tibet pursued a system of industrial, agricultural and nomadic practices, which were not only non-violent, but also self-sustaining and self-reliant. It was a system that put very little strain on the environment and natural resources. Tibetan villages then epitomized Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of cooperation and mutual help. By and large, the old Tibet was a happy and contented society.
With the occupation of Tibet by China, every aspect of the Tibetan culture and tradition has suffered destruction. China today uses Tibet as a guinea pig for experimenting with the new economic trends of consumerism and globalization, subjecting the Tibetan people to exploitation.
However, if China is engaged in wiping out the Tibetan tradition of non-violence, cooperation and mutual help, His Holiness the Dalai Lama has established a number of Tibetan settlements in exile to provide livelihood and to preserve our religion and culture. His ultimate vision is to develop a way of life that dovetails our tradition with the positive aspects of modernity, one that will serve as the exile Tibetans’ gift to the people in Tibet, a gift that will fan the dying ember of tradition in Tibet.
The root cause of Tibet’s tragedy can be found in the international struggle between the capitalist and communists. In this context, it must be stated that the success of our goal of self-rule will depend on the kind of economic system that we follow. For many years now, people with wisdom and foresight have realized the poverty of both capitalism and communism in meeting human aspirations. Therefore, they developed a model of Middle Path economic system, drawing on the philosophy of cooperation. To Mahatma Gandhi cooperation is the foundation of non-violent economic system.
Gandhi’s vision and His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s teaching inspired the development of cooperative societies in almost every Tibetan settlement. Needless to say that the societies were built within the framework of the laws of host countries. To drive home the seriousness of our cooperative initiatives, the Charter of the Tibetans in Exile has included a specific Article on this issue.
True, the Government of India and state governments allows cooperative societies the benefit of tax exemption and low-interest loans. However, our aim is not to cash in on such legal and economic advantages. Rather, our goal is to evolve an economic system that is free from competition and violence.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The following are the aims and objectives of the cooperative societies in Tibetan settlements in exile:
- His Holiness the Dalai Lama has proposed to make future Tibet a zone of ahimsa and sanctuary of environment protection. It follows that the economic system of future Tibet should be based on non-violent and environment-friendly principles. This is a Middle Path system, one that avoids the extremes of communism and capitalism and successfully challenges the scourge of consumerism and globalization in favour of self-reliant and sustainable livelihood. This involves development of a system of cooperation and mutual help. To pave the way for this, we must reform and streamline the working of cooperative societies so that our experience serves as inputs to the reconstruction of Tibet when we are united with our brothers and sisters there
- For this, we need to organize workshops and other educational programs on the goals and philosophy of cooperatives. We need to build conviction among the people that all the activities of cooperative societies should be aimed at serving the interests of shareholders. This, in turn, should lead to greater participation by shareholders in the management and other activities of cooperative societies.
- As Article 93 of the Charter stipulates, products and revenues of cooperative societies must be used to benefit the shareholders. The societies’ revenue-generation activities must abide by the laws of host countries. Corrupt and immoral practices should be avoided at all costs.
- A system will be formulated to ensure that the cooperative societies clear all the outstanding dues within a definite period of time; clear their accounts annually, avoid bad debts, and provide convincing explanations, during the given financial year, to the questions of auditors.
- Efforts will be made to reform the bylaws of the cooperative societies within a definite period of time. The reform will be aimed at enabling the shareholders to elect the cooperative president, secretary, and other officer bearers, and discontinue the practice of making such appointments by the Tibetan Government-in-Exile.
- Knowledge of cooperative bylaws and the host countries’ laws on cooperative societies will be made a condition for appointing office bearers. We will look into the possibility of formulating a new body of service rules and regulations, including recruitment rules, to cover all the cooperative societies. As well as ensuring a standard body of rules and regulations, it will also help to safeguard the interest of cooperative employees.
- Efforts will be made to establish a Federation of Cooperative Societies to provide a forum for experience sharing, and more particularly, to help the societies in remote areas to market their products. Apart from marketing, the federation will facilitate the procurements of goods from outside for sale in the settlements.
|S#||Cooperative Name||Regd. Nos:||Location|
|FEDERATION OF TIBETAN CO-OPERATIVES IN INDIA (FTCI)||MSCS/CR/223/2005||H.O. Bengaluru, K.S.|
|1||Tibetan Primary Agriculture Credit Co-operative Society Ltd., Lugsung Samdupling||ARM/1492/1963-64||Bylakuppe, K.S.|
|2||Tibetan Dickey Larsoe Primary Agriculture Credit Co-operative Society Ltd., Dickyi Larsoe||ARM/1528/1969-70||Bylakuppe K.S.|
|3||Tibetan Rabgayling Primary Agriculture Credit Co-operative Society Ltd., Gurupura||ARM/1890/1971-72||Hunsur, K.S.|
|4||Dhondenling Primary Agriculture Credit Co-operative Society Ltd.||ARM/3237/1974-75||Kollegal, K.S.|
|5||Doeguling Tibetan Primary Agriculture Credit Co-operative Society Ltd.||ASR/527/1967||Mundgod, K.S.|
|6||Multi-purpose Tibetan Co-operative Society Ltd., Phuntsokling||J.No. 1366||Odisha|
|7||Phendeling Tibetan Refugee Multi-purpose Co-operative Society Ltd.||ARAPR/1377/1967||Mainpat, Chattisgarh|
|8||Tibetan Multi-purpose Co-operative Society Ltd., Gothangaon||BHD/RSR-109||Bhandara, Maharashtra|
|9||Dhargyeling Tibetan Multi-purpose Co-operative Society Ltd.||Coop(G)45/79||Tezu, A.P.|
|10||Choepheling Tibetan Service Co-operative Society, Miao||Coop(G)-143/70||Miao, A.P.|
|11||Tenzingang Multi-purpose Tibetan Co-operative Society Ltd.||Coop(ORG)25/86||Tenzingang, A.P.|
|12||Sonamling Tibetan Refugee Service Co-operative Society Ltd.||L/71/TRSCS||Leh, Ladalk|
|13||Darjeeling Tibetan Refugee Co-operative Collective Farming Society Ltd.||No. 7 of 27.1.1966||Sonada, W.B.|
|14||Kunphenling Tibetan Co-operative Society Ltd.||No. 86/78||Ravangla, Sikkim|
|15||Tibetan Handicraft Co-operative Society Ltd., Dharamshala||315/69||Dharamshala|
|( These details were received from Mr. Tsering Dorjee (Uncle) on 20-Dec-2018 )|
|S#||Society Name||Regd. Nos.||Locations|
|1||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Dalhousie, H.P.|
|2||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Shimla, H.P.|
|3||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Bir Tibetan Society, H.P.|
|4||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Bir Nangchen, Bir|
|5||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Bir Dege, Bir|
|6||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Puruwala, Sakya|
|7||Paonta Choelsum Tibetan Handicraft Society, Paonta|
|8||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Pandoh, Mandi|
|9||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Herbertpur, U.K.|
|10||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Dolanji, H.P.|
|11||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Kamrao, H.P.|
|12||Rajpur Tibetan Women’s Handicraft Society, UK|
|13||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Kham-Katok, Sataun|
|14||Tibetan Handicraft Society, Dekyiling, Dehradun|
|15||Tashijong Tibetan Handicraft Society, Bir|